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Vascular Plants: Gymnosperms

Quiz 9Paper details:Your Plant Password (all lower case)Your Last NameYour First NameEnter your email address accuratelyQuestions 1 – 13 are taken from the course website, Vascular Plants: GymnospermsQuestions 14 – 20 are taken from Chapter 18 in the textbook.A B C D1. The extinct “cycadeoids” differ from the modern extant cycads by having ______________.A. primary tissues but no secondary tissuesB. unisexual pollen and seed conesC. different morphology of the guard cells in the epidermisD. flowers instead of conesA B C D2. Cycads are dioecious, meaning that ______________.A. there are no reproductive structures knownB. the plants drop their leaves each fallC. they have male and female cones on the same plantD. there are separate male and female plantsA B C D3. Unlike the seed cone of pines, the seed cone of cycads such as Cycas revoluta is ______________.A. a simple structure, a branch of modified leaves (megasporophylls)B. a complex structure, a branch of modified branches (microsporophylls)C. a complex organism, a modified gametophyteD. none of the above are correctA B C D4. In cycads, as in all other gymnosperms, a pollen tube is ______________.A. one of the most important evolutionary advances in seed plantsB. lacking, the sperm swim freely to the eggC. extremely long, usually more than 15 cm in lengthD. a means of transferring the pollen grain to the stigmaA B C D5. Cycad fossils are ______________.A. unknownB. known from the late PermianC. abundant in the Devonian, but scarce in later PeriodsD. never found with cones or seedsA B C D6. Seed ferns ______________.A. were the first group of plants to have true seedsB. evolved in the Devonian and became extinct by the CretaceousC. were polyphyletic, and likely gave rise to several modern lines of seed plantsD. all the above are correctA B C D7. The Carboniferous was sometimes referred to (mistakenly) as the “Age of Ferns” because_________________.A. fossils of seed ferns were often mistaken for true fernsB. ferns did not evolve until the OligoceneC. Lycophyte fossils were most abundant, and have fern-like (pinnate) leavesD. all of the above are correctA B C D8. The extant gymnosperm phylum known as the Ginkgophyta is monotypic, meaning it has but one ____________.A. seedB. sexC. speciesD. fossilA B C D9. Ginkgo biloba is regarded as a “living fossil” because it ______________.A. has microphyllous leaves without any vascular tissueB. has silicon dioxide (glass) deposits in its leaves, giving the plant a rock-like feelC. is nearly indistinguishable from Permian fossil ginkgoesD. all of the above are correctA B C D10. One interesting and important characteristic of Ginkgo biloba is that ______________.A. it has bisexual conesB. its seed coat produces butanoic and hexanoic acids, which stinkC. it lacks true leavesD. it is sterile and produces no pollen or seedsA B C D11. “Gnetophytes” like Ephedra ______________.A. may be the closest living relatives of flowering plantsB. are unknown from the fossil recordC. are the only seed plants that lack vascular tissuesD. have seeds with multiple embryos, so that a single seed produces several plantsA B C D12. An important characteristic of the “gnetophyte” Ephedra is ______________.A. its ovules produce a sugary exudate that rewards insect pollinatorsB. it has vessel elements in its xylemC. it produces a potent alkaloid that raises blood pressureD. all of the above are correctA B C D13. Conifers arose in the ______________.A. Carboniferous from ancestors like CordaitesB. Cretaceous from ancestors like WelwitschiaC. Cambrian from ancestors like MedullosaD. none of the above are correctA B C D14. A seed is defined as a fertilized ovule. An ovule consists of ______________.A. a megasporocyte and an embryoB. a megasporophyte with cotyledon(s)C. a megasporangium surrounded by integument(s)D. a megasporangium and a microsporangiumA B C D15. Morphologically, a fascicle of needles in Pinus is a ______________.A. indeterminate branchB. determinate branchC. reproductive branchD. large modified pinnate leafA B C D16. Xerophytic adaptations (adaptations for growth where water is scarce) of pine leaves (“needles”) include ______________.A. thin cuticleB. sunken stomataC. both of the above are correctD. neither of the above are correctA B C D17. Inside the young pine pollen grain are four cells, which represent the ______________.A. microsporocyteB. microgametophyteC. microsporophyllD. microsporophyteA B C D18. The ovuliferous scales of pines are ______________.A. simple indeterminate branchesB. modified leavesC. absent on female treesD. modified determinate branch systemsA B C D19. The Cycadophyta appeared approximately ______________ years ago in the ______________.A. 370 million . . . DevonianB. 250 million . . . PermianC. 145 million . . . CretaceousD. 20 million . . . MioceneA B C D20. Like the cycads, Ginkgo bears its ovules and microsporangia ______________.A. on different individualsB. on the same individualC. at different seasonsD. in the same cone